Posts tagged ‘bull market’

From Gloom to Boom

Gloomy clouds rolled in late last year in the form of a government shutdown; U.S. – China trade war tensions; hawkish Federal Reserve interest rate policies; a continued special counsel investigation by Robert Mueller into potential Russian election interference; a change in the Congressional balance of power; Brexit deal uncertainty; and U.S. recession concerns, among other worries. These fear factors contributed to a thundering collapse in stock prices during the September to December time frame of approximately -20% in the S&P 500 index (from the September 21st peak until the December 24th trough).

However, the dark storm clouds quickly lifted once Santa Claus delivered post-Christmas stock price gains that have continued through February. More specifically, since Christmas Eve, U.S. stocks have rebounded a whopping +18%. On a shorter term basis, the S&P 500 index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average have both jumped +11.1% in 2019. January showed spectacular gains, but last month was impressive as well with the Dow climbing +3.7% and the S&P +3.0%.

The rapid rise and reversal in negative sentiment over the last few months have been aided by a few positive developments.

  • Strong Earnings Growth: For starters, 2018 earnings growth finished strong with an increase of roughly +13% in Q4-2018, thereby bringing the full year profit surge of roughly +20%.  All else equal, over the long run, stock prices generally follow the path of earnings growth (more on that later).
  • Solid Economic Growth: If you shift the analysis from the operations of companies to the overall performance of the economy, the results in Q4 – 2018 also came in better than anticipated (see chart below). For the last three months of the year, the U.S. economy grew at a pace of +2.6% (higher than the +2.2% GDP [Gross Domestic Product] growth forecast), despite headwinds introduced by the temporary U.S. federal government shutdown and the lingering Chinese trade spat. For the full-year, GDP growth came in very respectably at +2.9%, but critics are dissecting this rate because it was a hair below the coveted 3%+ target of the White House.

Source: The Wall Street Journal

  • A More Accommodative Federal Reserve: As mentioned earlier, a major contributing factor to the late-2018 declines was driven by a stubborn Federal Reserve that was consistently raising their interest rate target (an economic-slowing program that is generally bad for stocks and bonds), which started back in late 2015 when the Federal Funds interest rate target was effectively 0%. Over the last three years, the Fed has raised its target rate range from 0% to 2.50% (see chart below), while also bleeding off assets from its multi-trillion dollar balance sheet (primarily U.S. Treasury and mortgage-backed securities). The combination of these anti-stimulative policies, coupled with slowing growth in major economic regions like China and Europe, stoked fears of an impending recession here in the U.S. Fortunately for investors, however, the Federal Reserve Chairman, Jerome Powell, came to the rescue by essentially implementing a more “patient” approach with interest rate increases (i.e., no rate increases expected in the foreseeable future), while simultaneously signaling a more flexible approach to ending the balance sheet runoff (take the program off “autopilot).

Source: Dr. Ed’s Blog

The Stock Market Tailwinds

For those of you loyal followers of my newsletter articles and blog articles over the last 10+ years, you understand that my generally positive stance on stocks has been driven in large part by a couple of large tailwinds (see also Don’t Be a Fool, Follow the Stool):

#1) Low Interest Rates – Yes, it’s true that interest rates have inched higher from “massively low” levels to “really low” levels, but nevertheless interest rates act as the cost of holding money. Therefore, when inflation is this low, and interest rates are this low, stocks look very attractive. If you don’t believe me, then perhaps you should just listen to the smartest investor of all-time, Warren Buffett. Just this week the sage billionaire reiterated his positive views regarding the stock market during a two hour television interview, when he once again echoed his bullish stance on stocks. Buffett noted, “If you tell me that 3% long bonds will prevail over the next 30 years, stocks are incredibly cheap… if I had a choice today for a ten-year purchase of a ten-year bond at whatever it is or ten years, or– or buying the S&P 500 and holding it for ten years, I’d buy the S&P in a second.”

#2) Rising Profits – In the short-run, the direction of profits (orange line) and stock prices (blue line) may not be correlated (see chart below), but over the long-run, the correlation is amazingly high. For example, you can see this as the S&P 500 has risen from 666 in 2009 to 2,784 today (+318%). More recently, profits rose about +20% during 2018, yet stock prices declined. Moreover, profits at the beginning of 2019 (Q1) are forecasted to be flat/down, yet stock prices are up +11% in the first two months of the year. In other words, the short-term stock market is schizophrenic, so focus on the key long-term trends when planning for your investments.

Source: Macrotrends

Although 2018 ended with a gloomy storm, history tells us that sunny conditions have a way of eventually returning unexpectedly with a boom. Rather than knee-jerk reacting to volatile financial market conditions after-the-fact, do yourself a favor and create a more versatile plan that deals with many different weather conditions.

investment-questions-border

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (March 1, 2018). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions and certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

P.S.

Wade’s Investing Caffeine Podcast Has Arrived!

Wade Slome, founder of Sidoxia Capital Management, author of How I Managed $20 Billion Dollars by Age 32, and lead editor of the Investing Caffeine blog has launched the Caffeine Corner investment podcast.

The Investing Caffeine podcast is designed to wake up your investment brain with weekly overviews of financial markets and other economic-related topics.

Don’t miss out! Follow us on either SoundCloud or PodBean to get a new episode each week. Or follow our InvestingCaffeine.com blog and watch for new podcast updates each week.

SoundCloud: soundcloud.com/sidoxia
PodBean: sidoxia.podbean.com
“Investing Caffeine is designed to wake up your investment brain with weekly overviews of financial markets and other economic-related topics. The blog articles and podcasts provide opinions, not advice.”

March 1, 2019 at 3:43 pm Leave a comment

Why the Masses Missed the 10-Year Bull Market

The investing masses generally are notoriously short-termed focused. Although the overall stock market notched another gain this month, stock values are still down roughly -8% from the January peak, which has caused some investor angst. Despite this nervousness, stock prices have quadrupled and the bull market has entered its 10th year after the March 2009 low (S&P 500: 666). Given this remarkable accomplishment, we can now look back and ask, “Did investors take advantage of this massive advance?” The short answer is “No.” For the most part, the fearful masses missed the decade-long, U.S. bull market. We know this dynamic to be true because data regarding stock ownership has gone down significantly, and hundreds of billions of dollars have been pulled from U.S. equity funds over the duration. For instance, Gallup, the survey and analytics company, annually polls the average percentage of Americans who own stocks and they found ownership has dropped from 62% of Americans in 2008 to 54% in 2017 (see chart below).

Much of the negativity that has dominated investor behavior over the last decade can be explained by important behavioral biases. As I describe in Controlling the Investment Lizard Brain, evolution created an almond-sized tissue in the prefrontal cortex of the brain (amygdala), which controls reasoning. Originally, the amygdala triggered the instinctual survival flight response for lizards to avoid hungry hawks and humans to flee ferocious lions. In today’s modern society, the probability of getting eaten by a lion is infinitesimal, so rather than fretting over a potential lion slaughtering, humans now worry about their finances getting eaten by financial crises, Federal Reserve interest rate hikes, and/or geopolitical risks.

Even with the spectacular +300% appreciation in stock values from early 2009, academic research can help us understand how pessimism can outweigh optimism, even in the wake of a raging bull market. Consider the important risk aversion research conducted by Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman and his partner Amos Tversky (see Pleasure/Pain Principle). Their research pointed out the pain of losses can be twice as painful as the pleasure experienced through gains (see diagram below).

Given this backdrop, how can these gargantuan gains be maintained (or improved upon) when investors are continually draining money out of riskier stocks and pouring cash into more conservative bonds? (see Fund Flows Paradox). There are several major factors that can explain the colossal gains in the face of a stock investor exodus:

  • Share Buybacks: While investors might not be buying loads of stocks, corporations have purchased trillions of dollars in stocks since the financial crisis. As you can see from the chart below, the table is set for 2018 to be a record year in share buybacks ($842 billion estimate), thanks to record profits and tax legislation that is making it cheaper for corporations to bring back foreign profits abroad.

Source: Marketwatch

  • Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A): Record profits, low interest rates, and high cash levels have led to trillions of dollars in U.S. M&A activity (almost $2 trillion in 2017) – see chart below. Not all of this was funded with cash and debt, but suffice it to say, enormous amounts of equity have been removed from the stock market.

Source: IMAA Institute

  • Limited IPOs: Certainly, we have seen a few high-profile, stock deals hit the market in the form of initial public offerings (IPOs) over the last year. Some prominent IPOs over the last year, include Dropbox Inc. (DBX), Spotify Technology (SPOT), and Snap Inc. (SNAP), however this limited supply of new deals is a drop in the bucket. As you can see from the chart below, the number of IPOs is significantly below the 1999-2000 peak and the recent added supply pales in comparison to the latest supply-sucking share buybacks and acquisitions.

Source: Statista

Just as important as these supply related issues are to the stock market, demand related issues are important as well. While individual U.S. investors have been scarred by the 2008-2009 financial crisis, ultimately, over the long run, money does not care about behavioral biases. Money goes where it is treated best. Theoretically, the best treatment could be in U.S. stocks or U.S. bonds, or it could be in pork bellies or the Thai baht currency, among many other asset classes (e.g., real estate, commodities, venture capital, Bitcoin, etc.). Much like a trip to the grocery store, global money flows search for the best deals. If beef prices spike by +30% and chicken prices drop by -20%, guess what? Shoppers will now buy more chicken and less beef. Similarly, when Japanese 10-year bonds are yielding 0.04%, German 10-year bonds 0.56%, and U.K. 10-year bonds 1.42%, then U.S. 10-year Treasuries with a 2.96% yield don’t look so bad.

More importantly, as it relates to stock prices, there has been a mass divergence between the interest rate yields earned on Treasuries and the earnings yield (E/P or the inverse P/E ratio) since this 10-year bull market began (Ed Yardeni has a great chart of this Fed Valuation chart). Stocks, as they are valued today, are effectively providing double the yield of bonds (roughly a 6% yield vs 3% yield, respectively). As long as this phenomenon remains intact over the medium term, stocks could continue to significantly outperform bonds. Eventually a spike in stock prices and/or an earnings decline caused by a recession will lower the earnings yield on stocks, but until then, nervous investors will likely continue to underperform.

What the almost 10-year bull market teaches us is that our behavioral shortcomings can be a drag on performance and stock values, but the economic laws of supply and demand can play an even more significant role in the direction of the stock market. Learning how to control your lizard brain (amygdala), and understand how the pain of losses (risk aversion) can distort decision making processes can help you more clearly see how record profits (see chart below), share buybacks, M&A activity, and limited stock issuance (i.e. IPOs) will impact stock prices. Understanding these lessons will better prepare the masses in navigating through future bull and bear markets.

Source: FACTSET

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (May 1, 2018). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions in certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in DBX, SPOT, SNAP, or any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

 

May 3, 2018 at 10:23 am Leave a comment

Stocks Winning Olympic Gold

 

medals

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (August 1, 2016). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

The XXXI Olympics in Rio, Brazil begin this week, but stocks in 2016 have already won a gold medal for their stellar performance. The S&P 500 index has already triumphantly sprinted to new, all-time record highs this month. A significant portion of the gains came in July (+3.6%), but if you also account for the positive results achieved in the first six months of 2016, stocks have advanced +6.3% for the year. If you judge the 2%+ annualized dividend yield, the total investment return earns an even higher score, coming closer to +8% for the year-to-date period.

No wonder the U.S. is standing on the top of the economic podium compared to some of the other international financial markets, which have sucked wind during 2016:

  • China Shanghai Index: -15.8%
  • Japan Nikkei Index: -12.9%
  • French Paris CAC Index: -4.3%
  • German Dax Index: -3.8%
  • Europe MSCI Index: -3.5%
  • Hong Kong Heng Sang Index: -0.1%

While there are some other down-and-out financial markets that have rebounded significantly this year (e.g., Brazil +61% & Russia +23%), the performance of the U.S. stock market has been impressive in light of all the fear, uncertainty, and doubt blanketing the media airwaves. Consider the fact that the record-breaking performance of the U.S. stock market in July occurred in the face of these scary headlines:

  • Brexit referendum (British exit from the European Union)
  • Declining oil prices
  • Declining global interest rates
  • More than -$11,000,000,000,000.00 (yes trillions) in negative interest rate bonds
  • Global terrorist attacks
  • Coup attempt in Turkey
  • And oh yeah, a contentious domestic presidential election

With so many competitors struggling, and the investment conditions so challenging, then how has the U.S. prospered with a gold medal performance in this cutthroat environment? For many individuals, the answer can be confusing. However, for Sidoxia’s followers and clients, the strong pillars for a continued bull market have been evident for some time (described again below).

Bull Market Pillars

Surprising to some observers, stocks do not read pessimistic newspaper headlines or listen to gloomy news stories. In the short-run, stock prices can get injured by emotional news-driven traders and speculators, but over the long-run, stocks and financial markets are drawn like a magnet to several all-important metrics. What crucial metrics am I referring to? As I’ve reiterated in the past, the key drivers for future stock price appreciation are corporate profits, interest rates, valuations (i.e., price levels), and sentiment indicators (see also Don’t Be a Fool).

Stated more simply, money goes where it is treated best, and with many bonds and savings accounts earning negative or near 0% interest rates, investors are going elsewhere – for example, stocks. You can see from the chart below, economy/stocks are treated best by rising corporate profits, which are at/near record high levels. With the majority of stocks beating 2nd quarter earnings expectations, this shot of adrenaline has given the stock market an added near-term boost. A stabilizing U.S. dollar, better-than-expected banking results, and firming commodity prices have all contributed to the winning results.

jul 16 gdp

Price Follows Earnings…and Recessions

What history shows us is stock prices follow the direction of earnings, which helps explain why stock prices generally go down during economic recessions. Weaker demand leads to weaker profits, and weaker profits lead to weaker stock prices. Fortunately for U.S. investors, there currently are no definitive signs of imminent recession clouds. Scott Grannis, the editor of Calafia Beach Pundit, sums up the relationship between recessions and the stock market here:

“Recessions typically follow periods of excesses—soaring home prices, rising inflation, widespread optimism—rather than periods dominated by risk aversion such as we have today. Risk aversion can still be found in abundance: just look at the extremely low level of Treasury yields, and the lack of business investment despite strong corporate profits.”

Similar to the Olympics, achieving success in investing can be very challenging, but if you want to win a medal, you must first compete. If you’re not investing, you’re not competing. And if you’re not investing, you have no chance of winning a financial gold medal. Just as in the Olympics, not everyone can win, and there are many ups and downs along the way to victory. Rather than focusing on the cheers and boos of the crowd, implementing a disciplined and diversified investment strategy that accounts for your time horizon, objectives, and risk tolerance is the championship approach that will increase your probability of landing on the Olympic medal podium.

investment-questions-border

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

www.Sidoxia.com

Plan. Invest. Prosper. 

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions in certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

August 1, 2016 at 1:39 pm Leave a comment

Santa and the Rate-Hike Boogeyman

Slide1

Boo! … Rates are about to go up. Or are they? We’re in the fourth decade of a declining interest rate environment (see Don’t be a Fool), but every time the Federal Reserve Chairman speaks or monetary policies are discussed, investors nervously look over their shoulder or under their bed for the “Rate Hike Boogeyman.” While this nail-biting mentality has resulted in lost sleep for many, this mindset has also unfortunately led to a horrible forecasting batting average for economists. Santa and many equity investors have ignored the rate noise and have been singing Ho Ho Ho as stock prices hover near record highs.

A recent Deutsche Bank report describes the prognostication challenges here:

i.)  For the last 10 years, professional forecasters have consistently been wrong on their predictions of rising interest rates.

Source: Deutsche Bank

Source: Deutsche Bank via Vox

ii.)  For the last five years, investors haven’t fared any better. As you can see, they too have been continually wrong about their expectations for rising interest rates.

Source: Deutsche Bank via Vox

Source: Deutsche Bank via Vox

I’m the first to admit that rates have remained “lower for longer” than I guessed, but unlike many, I do not pretend to predict the exact timing of future rate increases. I strongly believe inevitable interest rate rises are not a matter of “if” but rather “when”. However, trying to forecast the timing of a rate increase can be a fool’s errand. Japan is a great case in point. If you take a look at the country’s interest rates on their long-term 10-year government bonds (see chart below), the yields have also been declining over the last quarter century. While the yield on the 10-Year U.S. Treasury Note is near all-time historic lows at 2.18%, that rate pales in comparison to the current 10-Year Japanese Bond which is yielding a minuscule 0.36%. While here in the states our long-term rates only briefly pierced below the 2% threshold, as you can see, Japanese rates have remained below 2% for a jaw-dropping duration of about 15 years.

Source: TradingEconomics.com

Source: TradingEconomics.com

There are plenty of reasons to explain the differences in the economic situation of the U.S. and Japan (see Japan Lost Decades), but despite the loose monetary policies of global central banks, history has proven that interest rates and inflation can remain stubbornly low for longer than expected.

The current pundit thinking has Federal Reserve Chairwoman Yellen leading the brigade towards a rate hike during mid-calendar 2015. Even if the forecasters finally get the interest rate right for once, the end-outcome is not going to be catastrophic for equity markets. One need look no further than 1994 when Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan increased the benchmark federal funds rate by a hefty +2.5%. (see 1994 Bond Repeat?). Rather than widespread financial carnage in the equity markets, the S&P 500 finished roughly flat in 1994 and resumed the decade-long bull market run in the following year.

Currently 15 of the 17 Fed policy makers see 2015 median short-term rates settling at 1.125% from the current level of 0-0.25%. This hardly qualifies as interest rate Armageddon. With a highly transparent and dovish Janet Yellen at the helm, I feel perfectly comfortable the markets can digest the inevitable Fed rate hikes. Will (could) there be volatility around changes in Fed monetary policy during 2015? Certainly – no different than we experienced during the “taper tantrum” response to Chairman Ben Bernanke’s rate rise threats in 2013 (see Fed Fatigue).

As 2014 comes to an end, Santa has wrapped investor portfolios with a generous bow of returns in the fifth year of this historic bull market. Not everyone, however, has been on Santa’s “nice” list. Regrettably, many sideliners have received no presents because they incorrectly assessed the elimination impact of Quantitative Easing (QE). If you prefer presents over a lump of coal in your stocking, it will be in your best interest to ignore the Rate Hike Boogeyman and jump on Santa’s sleigh.

Investment Questions Border

 

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper. 

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients own a range of positions, including certain exchange traded fund positions, but at the time of publishing SCM had no direct position in DB or any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

December 20, 2014 at 12:24 pm Leave a comment


Receive Investing Caffeine blog posts by email.

Join 1,794 other followers

Meet Wade Slome, CFA, CFP®

More on Sidoxia Services

Recognition

Top Financial Advisor Blogs And Bloggers – Rankings From Nerd’s Eye View | Kitces.com

Wade on Twitter…

Share this blog

Bookmark and Share

Subscribe to Blog RSS

Monthly Archives