Posts tagged ‘bear market’

Even Winning Teams Occasionally Lose

The stock market has been a winning team for years, generating outsized returns for investors. But so far this year, the winning streak appears to be coming to an end. For 2022, the S&P 500 index is down -21%, including -8% last month. However, since 2008, the stock market has generally been on a consistent tear racking up a record of 10 wins, 2 losses (2015 and 2018), and one tie (2011). In recent years, the U.S. stock market has been winning by a large margin (2019: +29%, 2020: +16%, 2021: +27%) and a significant contributor to the team’s win streak has been the Federal Reserve, or the designated hitter (DH).

Jerome Powell, the Fed Chair, has been a very effective clean-up hitter for the stock market, not only leading the stock market team to victories, but also appreciation in almost all global-risk asset classes. By keeping interest rates (the Federal Funds Rate target) essentially at 0% over the last few years, since the initial COVID pandemic outbreak, many investors are blaming Mr. Powell for elevated inflation rates. If that were truly the case, then we probably wouldn’t see the ubiquitous inflation globally, as we do now. Just as you would expect with any baseball team, any single player does not deserve all the credit for wins, nor should any single player receive all the blame for losses – the same principle applies to the Federal Reserve.

Regardless, the stock market’s best hitter is now injured. In addition to pushing interest rates higher, the Fed is hurting the team through its monetary policy of quantitative tightening or QT (i.e., selling bonds off the Fed’s balance sheet). Theoretically, QT should cause interest rates to move higher, all else equal, and thereby slow down growth in the economy, and help tame out-of-control inflation.

The stock market was also thrown a curve ball when Russia invaded Ukraine, which added gasoline to an already flaming inflation fire. Globally, consumers and businesses have witnessed exploding oil/gasoline prices, in addition to escalated food prices caused by a lack of grain and other commodity exports out of Ukraine.

Lastly, a wild pitch has been thrown at the U.S. stock market by China with its zero-COVID policy, which has essentially shut down the world’s 2nd largest economy and further delayed the full reopening of the global economic game. As a result of China’s hardline lockdown stance, global supply chain disruptions have intensified and import prices have mushroomed higher.

Although this all sounds like horrible news, in the game of investing, nobody wins all the time. As history teaches us, the stock market is generally up around 70% of the time. It just happens to be that we are in the middle of a 30% losing period.

Bad News Does Not Mean Bad Stock Market

The majority of economists, strategists, and talking heads on television are forecasting a recession in our economy, either this year or next. This should come as no surprise to any experienced investor, as history teaches us that recessions occur on average about twice every decade. Long-term investors also understand that stock prices do not always just go up on good news and down on bad news. Stocks can go down on good news, and up on bad news. In fact, over the last 13 years, since the bottom of the 2008-2009 financial crisis, the stock market has increased about six-fold (even after this year’s -21% correction) in the face of some horrendously scary headlines (also see chart below):

·       Ukraine-Russia

·       COVID

·       Elections / Capitol Insurrection

·       Exit from Afghanistan

·       Impeachment

·       China Trade War & Tariffs

·       Inverted Yield Curves

·       N. Korea Missile Launches

·       Brexit

·       ISIS in Iraq

·       Ebola

·       Russia Takeover of Crimea

·       Double Dip Recession Fears

·       Eurozone Debt Crisis

S&P 500 Index (1997 – 2022)

Source: TradingEconomics.com

Despite the recent headwinds in the stock market, not all the news is bad. Here are some tailwinds:

  • PROFITS: Corporate profits remain at or near record levels.
Source: Yardeni.com
  • INFLATION: Inflation appears to be cooling as evidenced by declining commodity prices (TR Commodities CRB Index).

CRB Commodities Index (2022)

Source: TradingView
  • PRICES: Valuations have come down significantly – Price/Earnings ratio of 15.9 (i.e., stock prices are on sale).
Source: Yardeni.com
  • SENTIMENT: Sentiment remains fearful – a contrarian buy indicator (an elevated VIX – Volatility Index can signal buying opportunities). As Warren Buffett says, “Be fearful when others are greedy, and greedy when others are fearful.”

VIX – Volatility Index (2021 – 2022)

Source: Macrotrends

Even though the U.S. stock market has been a long-term winner, investors have been betting against the winning team by selling stocks. As mentioned earlier, recessions, if we get one, are common and nothing new. The -21% correction in stock prices is already factoring in a mild recession, so we have already suffered near-maximum pain. Could prices go lower? Certainly. But should you quit a 26-mile marathon at mile 25 because the pain is too intense? In most instances, the answer should absolutely be “no” (see also No Pain, No Gain). Eventually, the Fed will stop raising interest rates, inflation will cool, the Russia-Ukraine war will be resolved, and solid growth will return. While many people are betting the stock market will lose this year, many long-term investors recognize betting on stock market success is a winning strategy over the long-run, especially when prices are on sale.

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions and certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in BRKA/B or any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

July 1, 2022 at 3:47 pm Leave a comment

Bad Weather Coming: Hurricane or Drizzle?

It was a stormy month in the stock market, but the sun eventually came out and the Dow Jones Industrial Average rallied more than 2,300+ points before eking out a small gain (up +0.04%) and the S&P 500 index also posted an incremental increase (+0.005%). But there are clouds on the horizon. Although the economy is currently very strong (i.e., record corporate profits and a generationally low unemployment rate of 3.6% – see chart below), some forecasters are predicting a recession during 2023 as a result of the Federal Reserve pumping the brakes on the economy by increasing interest rates, in addition to elevated inflation, supply chain disruptions, COVID lockdowns in China, and a war between Russia and Ukraine.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (1997 – 2022)

Source: TradingEconomics.com

But like weather forecasters, economists are perpetually unreliable. While some doomsday-er economists are expecting a deeply destructive hurricane (deep recession), others are only seeing a mild drizzle (soft landing) developing. The truth is, nobody knows for certain at this point, but what we do know is that the correction in stock prices this year (-13% now and -20% two weeks ago) has already significantly discounted (factored in) a mild recession. In other words, even if a mild recession were to occur in the coming months or quarters, there may be very little reaction or negative consequences for investors. Similarly, if inflation begins to be peaking as it appears to be doing (see chart below), and the Fed can orchestrate a soft landing (i.e., raise interest rates and reduce balance sheet debt without crippling the economy), then substantial rewards could accrue to stock market investors. On the flip side, if the economy were to go into a deep recession, history would suggest this stormy forecast might result in another -10% to -15% of chilliness.

INFLATION RATE (%)

Source: TradingEconomics.com

Due to trillions of dollars in increased stimulus spending and Federal Reserve Quantitative Easing (bond buying), we experienced an explosion in the government deficit and surge in money supply growth (i.e., the root cause for swelling inflation). Arguably, some or all of these accommodations were useful in surviving through the worst parts of the COVID pandemic, however, we are paying the price now in sky-high food costs, explosive gasoline prices, and expanding credit card bills. The good news is the deficit is plummeting (see chart below) due to a reduction in spending (due in part to no Build Back Better infrastructure spending legislation) and soaring income tax receipts from a strengthening economy and capital gains in the stock market.

MONEY SUPPLY GROWTH% (M2) VS. GOVERNMENT DEFICIT

Source: Calafia Beach Pundit

For many investors, getting used to large multi-year gains has been very comfortable, but interpreting downward gyrations in the stock market can be very confusing and counterintuitive. In short, attempting to decipher the reasons behind the short-term zigs and zags of the market is a fool’s errand. Not many people predicted a +48% gain in the stock market during a global pandemic (2020-2021), just like not many people predicted a short-lived -20% reduction in the stock market during 2022 as we witnessed record-high corporate profits and unemployment rates hovering near generational lows (3.6%).

Stock market veterans understand that stock prices can go down when current economic news is sunny but future expectations are too high. Experienced investors also understand stock prices can go up when the current economic news may be getting too cloudy but future expectations are too low.

Apparently, the world’s greatest investor of all-time thinks that all this gloomy recession talk is creating lots of stock market bargains, which explains why Buffett has invested $51 billion of his cash at Berkshire Hathaway as the stock market has gotten a lot more inexpensive this year. So, while the economy will likely face a number of headwinds going into 2023, it doesn’t mean a hurricane is coming and you need to hide in a bunker. If you pull out your umbrella and rain gear, just like smart investors do during all previous challenging economic cycles, the drizzle from the storm clouds will eventually pass and blue skies shall reappear.

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (June 1, 2022). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions and certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in BRK.B/A or any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

June 1, 2022 at 1:21 pm Leave a comment

End of the World or Status Quo?

If you were the chief executive of a newspaper, television, or magazine company, what headline stories would you run to generate the most viewers and readers? Which subjects will you choose to make me impulsively grab a magazine in the grocery line, keep me glued to the television news, or suck me in to click-bait advertisements on the web? For example, what topics below would you select to grab the most attention?

·      Hurricane or Sunshine?

·      High Speed Car Chase or Cat Saved from Tree?

·      Bloody Murder or Baby’s Birthday?

·      Messy Divorce or Wedding Celebration?

·      Impeachment or Bipartisan Legislation

·      End of the World or Status Quo?

If you selected the first subject in each pair above, you would likely gain much more initial interest. In choosing a winning topic, the saying goes, “what bleeds, leads.” In other words, scary or controversial stories always grab more attention than feel-good or status quo narratives. And that is why the vast majority of media outlets are drawn to negativity, just as mosquitos are attracted to bug zappers. This phenomenon can be explained in part with the help of Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman and his partner Amos Tversky, who conducted research showing the pain from losses is more than twice as painful as are the pleasures experienced from gains (see chart below).

The significant volatility seen in the stock market recently from the Russian war/invasion of Ukraine is further evidence of how this fear dynamic can create short-term panics.

Although the stock market as measured by the S&P 500 index has gone gangbusters over the last three years, almost doubling in value (2019: +29%, 2020: +16%, 2021: +27%), the S&P 500 has hit an air pocket during the first couple months of 2022 (-8%), including down -3% in February. The year started with turbulence as investors became fearful of a Federal Reserve that is entering the beginning stages of interest rate hikes while cutting stimulative bond purchases. And then last month, the Russian-Ukrainian incursion made investors even more skittish. Like always, these geopolitical events tend to be short-lived once investors realize the impact turns out to be less meaningful than initially feared. As you can see below, the worst economic impact is forecasted to be felt by Russia (consensus on 2/24/22 of approximately a -1.0% hit to economic growth), more than twice as bad as the -0.2% to -0.4% knock to growth for the U.S., Europe, and the world (see chart below). The Russian hit will likely be worse after accelerated sanctions.

Source: The Financial Times (2/24/22)

As it relates to Ukraine, many Americans don’t even know where the country is located on a map. Ukraine accounts for about only 0.14% of total global GDP (i.e., a rounding error and less than 1% of total global economic activity). Russia, although larger than Ukraine, is still a relative small-fry and represents only about 3% of total global economic activity. If you live in Europe during the winter, you might be a little more concerned about Vladimir Putin’s recent activities because a lot of Europe’s energy (natural gas) is supplied by Russia through Ukraine. For example, Germany receives about half of its natural gas from Russia (see chart below).

Source: The Financial Times

Russia, on the other hand, is larger than Ukraine, but the red country is still a relative small-fry representing only about 3% of total global economic activity. When it comes to energy production however, Russia is more than a rounding error because the country accounts for about 11% of global energy production (#3 country globally behind the United States and Saudi Arabia). By taking all these factors into account, we can confidently state that Russia and Ukraine have a very low probability of solely pulling the global economy into recession.

If history repeats itself, this conflict will turn out to be another garden variety decline in the stock market and an opportunity to buy at a discount. It’s virtually impossible to predict a short-term bottom in stock prices has been reached, but over the long-run, stock investors have been handsomely rewarded for not panicking and staying invested (see chart below).

Source: Marketsmith

At the end of the day, the daily headlines will continually attempt to sell the negative story that the world is coming to an end. If you have the fortitude and discipline to ignore the irrelevant noise, the status quo of normal volatility can create more exciting opportunities and better returns for long-term investors.

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (March 1, 2022). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions and certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

March 1, 2022 at 4:52 pm 1 comment

From Gloom to Boom

Gloomy clouds rolled in late last year in the form of a government shutdown; U.S. – China trade war tensions; hawkish Federal Reserve interest rate policies; a continued special counsel investigation by Robert Mueller into potential Russian election interference; a change in the Congressional balance of power; Brexit deal uncertainty; and U.S. recession concerns, among other worries. These fear factors contributed to a thundering collapse in stock prices during the September to December time frame of approximately -20% in the S&P 500 index (from the September 21st peak until the December 24th trough).

However, the dark storm clouds quickly lifted once Santa Claus delivered post-Christmas stock price gains that have continued through February. More specifically, since Christmas Eve, U.S. stocks have rebounded a whopping +18%. On a shorter term basis, the S&P 500 index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average have both jumped +11.1% in 2019. January showed spectacular gains, but last month was impressive as well with the Dow climbing +3.7% and the S&P +3.0%.

The rapid rise and reversal in negative sentiment over the last few months have been aided by a few positive developments.

  • Strong Earnings Growth: For starters, 2018 earnings growth finished strong with an increase of roughly +13% in Q4-2018, thereby bringing the full year profit surge of roughly +20%.  All else equal, over the long run, stock prices generally follow the path of earnings growth (more on that later).
  • Solid Economic Growth: If you shift the analysis from the operations of companies to the overall performance of the economy, the results in Q4 – 2018 also came in better than anticipated (see chart below). For the last three months of the year, the U.S. economy grew at a pace of +2.6% (higher than the +2.2% GDP [Gross Domestic Product] growth forecast), despite headwinds introduced by the temporary U.S. federal government shutdown and the lingering Chinese trade spat. For the full-year, GDP growth came in very respectably at +2.9%, but critics are dissecting this rate because it was a hair below the coveted 3%+ target of the White House.

Source: The Wall Street Journal

  • A More Accommodative Federal Reserve: As mentioned earlier, a major contributing factor to the late-2018 declines was driven by a stubborn Federal Reserve that was consistently raising their interest rate target (an economic-slowing program that is generally bad for stocks and bonds), which started back in late 2015 when the Federal Funds interest rate target was effectively 0%. Over the last three years, the Fed has raised its target rate range from 0% to 2.50% (see chart below), while also bleeding off assets from its multi-trillion dollar balance sheet (primarily U.S. Treasury and mortgage-backed securities). The combination of these anti-stimulative policies, coupled with slowing growth in major economic regions like China and Europe, stoked fears of an impending recession here in the U.S. Fortunately for investors, however, the Federal Reserve Chairman, Jerome Powell, came to the rescue by essentially implementing a more “patient” approach with interest rate increases (i.e., no rate increases expected in the foreseeable future), while simultaneously signaling a more flexible approach to ending the balance sheet runoff (take the program off “autopilot).

Source: Dr. Ed’s Blog

The Stock Market Tailwinds

For those of you loyal followers of my newsletter articles and blog articles over the last 10+ years, you understand that my generally positive stance on stocks has been driven in large part by a couple of large tailwinds (see also Don’t Be a Fool, Follow the Stool):

#1) Low Interest Rates – Yes, it’s true that interest rates have inched higher from “massively low” levels to “really low” levels, but nevertheless interest rates act as the cost of holding money. Therefore, when inflation is this low, and interest rates are this low, stocks look very attractive. If you don’t believe me, then perhaps you should just listen to the smartest investor of all-time, Warren Buffett. Just this week the sage billionaire reiterated his positive views regarding the stock market during a two hour television interview, when he once again echoed his bullish stance on stocks. Buffett noted, “If you tell me that 3% long bonds will prevail over the next 30 years, stocks are incredibly cheap… if I had a choice today for a ten-year purchase of a ten-year bond at whatever it is or ten years, or– or buying the S&P 500 and holding it for ten years, I’d buy the S&P in a second.”

#2) Rising Profits – In the short-run, the direction of profits (orange line) and stock prices (blue line) may not be correlated (see chart below), but over the long-run, the correlation is amazingly high. For example, you can see this as the S&P 500 has risen from 666 in 2009 to 2,784 today (+318%). More recently, profits rose about +20% during 2018, yet stock prices declined. Moreover, profits at the beginning of 2019 (Q1) are forecasted to be flat/down, yet stock prices are up +11% in the first two months of the year. In other words, the short-term stock market is schizophrenic, so focus on the key long-term trends when planning for your investments.

Source: Macrotrends

Although 2018 ended with a gloomy storm, history tells us that sunny conditions have a way of eventually returning unexpectedly with a boom. Rather than knee-jerk reacting to volatile financial market conditions after-the-fact, do yourself a favor and create a more versatile plan that deals with many different weather conditions.

investment-questions-border

www.Sidoxia.com

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

This article is an excerpt from a previously released Sidoxia Capital Management complimentary newsletter (March 1, 2018). Subscribe on the right side of the page for the complete text.

DISCLOSURE: Sidoxia Capital Management (SCM) and some of its clients hold positions and certain exchange traded funds (ETFs), but at the time of publishing had no direct position in any other security referenced in this article. No information accessed through the Investing Caffeine (IC) website constitutes investment, financial, legal, tax or other advice nor is to be relied on in making an investment or other decision. Please read disclosure language on IC Contact page.

P.S.

Wade’s Investing Caffeine Podcast Has Arrived!

Wade Slome, founder of Sidoxia Capital Management, author of How I Managed $20 Billion Dollars by Age 32, and lead editor of the Investing Caffeine blog has launched the Caffeine Corner investment podcast.

The Investing Caffeine podcast is designed to wake up your investment brain with weekly overviews of financial markets and other economic-related topics.

Don’t miss out! Follow us on either SoundCloud or PodBean to get a new episode each week. Or follow our InvestingCaffeine.com blog and watch for new podcast updates each week.

SoundCloud: soundcloud.com/sidoxia
PodBean: sidoxia.podbean.com
“Investing Caffeine is designed to wake up your investment brain with weekly overviews of financial markets and other economic-related topics. The blog articles and podcasts provide opinions, not advice.”

March 1, 2019 at 3:43 pm Leave a comment

History Never Repeats Itself, But It Often Rhymes

Mark Twain

As Mark Twain said, “History never repeats itself, but it often rhymes.” There are many bear markets with which to compare the current financial crisis we are working through. By studying the past we can understand the repeated mistakes of others (caused by fear and greed), and avoid making similar emotional errors.

 Do you want an example? Here you go:

“Today there are thoughtful, experienced, respected economists, bankers, investors and businessmen who can give you well-reasoned, logical, documented arguments why this bear market is different; why this time the economic problems are different; why this time things are going to get worse — and hence, why this is not a good time to invest in common stocks, even though they may appear low.”
– Jim Fullerton, former chairman of the Capital Group of the American Funds (written  November 7, 1974)

 

Although the quote above seems appropriate for 2009, it actually is reflective of the bearish mood felt in most bear markets. We have been through wars, assassinations, banking crises, currency crises, terrorist attacks, mad-cow disease, swine flu, and yes, even recessions. And through it all, most have managed to survive in decent shape. Let’s take a deeper look.

1973-1974 Case Study:

For those of you familiar with this period, recall the prevailing circumstances:

  • Exiting Vietnam War
  • Undergoing a recession
  • 9% unemployment
  • Arab Oil Embargo
  • Watergate: Presidential resignation
  • Collapse of the Nifty Fifty stocks
  • Rising inflation

Not too rosy a scenario, yet here’s what happened:

S&P 500 Price (12/1974): 69

S&P 500 Price (8/2009): 1,021

That is a whopping +1,380% increase, excluding dividends.

What Investors Should Do:

  1. Avoid Knee-Jerk Reactions to Media Reports: Whether it’s radio, television, newspapers, or now blogs, the headlines should not emotionally control your investment decisions. Historically, media venues are lousy at identifying changes in price direction. Reporters are excellent at telling you what is happening or what just happened – not what is going to happen.
  2. Save and Invest: Regardless of the market direction, entitlements like Medicare and social security are under stress, and life expectancies are increasing (despite the sad state of our healthcare system), therefore investing is even more important today than ever.
  3. Create a Systematic, Disciplined Investment Plan: I recommend a plan that takes advantage of passive, low-cost, tax-efficient investment strategies (e.g. exchange-traded and index funds) across a diversified portfolio. Rather than capitulating in response to market volatility, have a systematic process that can rebalance periodically to take advantage of these circumstances.

For DIY-ers (Do-It-Yourselfers), I suggest opening a low-cost discount brokerage account and research firms like Vanguard Group, iShares, or Select Sector SPDRs. If you choose to outsource to a professional advisor, I recommend interviewing several fee-only* advisers – focusing on experience, investment philosophy, and potential compensation conflicts of interest.

If you believe, like some economists, CEOs, and investors, we have suffered through the worst of the current “Great Recession” and you are sitting on the sidelines, then it might make sense to heed the following advice: “Some people say they want to wait for a clearer view of the future. But when the future is again clear, the present bargains will have vanished.” Dean Witter made those comments 77 years ago – a few weeks before the end of worst bear market in history. The market has bounced quite a bit since March of this year, but if history is on our side, there might be more room to go.

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

*For disclosure purposes: Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP is President & Founder of Sidoxia Capital Management, LLC, a fee-only investment adviser based in Newport Beach, California.

September 16, 2009 at 4:00 am 10 comments

Measuring Chaos

Ruler

An interesting study was done by Morgan Stanley Europe, in which they looked at the last 19 bear markets and subsequent rallies. I’m not sure how much weight you can put on these results since every bear market is unique in its own right, nonetheless it provides a good frame of reference for debates.

What the Morgan Stanley team found was that the median bear market resulted in a -57% decline over 30 months and the ensuing rally equaled about +71% over 17 months. The problem is that our bear market in the U.S. was much shorter than the median timeframe despite its steepness – the fall effectively began in October 2007 and bottomed in March 2009 (about 17 months in duration). Since the decline was faster in duration, does that mean the advance will be as well? Not sure. Our current rally has lasted about six months, which implies there is about another year for the rally to continue based on this data.  

Prieur du Plessis wrote about the Morgan Stanley work for Seeking Alpha

Prieur du Plessis wrote about the Morgan Stanley work for Seeking Alpha

As I alluded to earlier, it’s hard to compare an average to a period in which we had financial institutions dropping like flies (i.e., Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, WaMu, Fannie Mae, AIG, etc.) and people were hiding in caves – you knew it was really serious when it even caused voracious consumers to save money…imagine that. At the end of the day, stock and index prices eventually follow earnings. Because of the severity of this downfall, earnings came down faster than prices because fundamentals deteriorated faster than cost cutting could take place. When the economy begins to recover, the opposite will occur – businesses will not be able to hire and spend as fast as earnings are growing. It will be a nice problem to have, but nonetheless characteristic of a typical economic recovery.

Cycle II

In the U.S., the consumer will have a lot to say about the shape of the recovery since they account for about 2/3 of our country’s economic activity. The other “X” factor will be to what extent government legislation will have an impact on the economy. There will be opportunities available domestically and internally, but in order to survive the chaos, one needs to have a diversified and balanced global approach.

Read the Full Seeking Alpha Article Here

Wade W. Slome, CFA, CFP®

Plan. Invest. Prosper.

September 3, 2009 at 4:00 am Leave a comment


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